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Morphine Addiction

Q) What is Morphine?

A) Morphine is a narcotic analgesic. Morphine was first isolated from opium in 1805 by a German pharmacist, Wilhelm Sertürner. Sertürner described it as the Principium Somniferum. He named it morphium - after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Today morphine is isolated from opium in substantially larger quantities - over 1000 tons per year - although most commercial opium is converted into codeine by methylation. On the illicit market, opium gum is filtered into morphine base and then synthesized into heroin.

Q) How is Morphine used?

A) Morphinecan be taken orally in tablet form, and can also injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously; the last is the route preferred by those who are dependent on morphine.

Q) What are the side effects of Morphine?

A)

anxiety

involuntary movement of the eyeball
blurred vision / double vision
constipation
"pinpoint" pupils chills
depressed or irritable mood
itching cramps
dizziness
rash diarrhea
drowsiness
rigid muscles inability to urinate
exaggerated sense of well-being
seizure dreams
light - headedness
swelling due to fluid retention dry mouth
nausea
tingling or pins and needles facial flushing
sedation
tremor fainting / faintness
sweating
uncoordinated muscle movements floating feeling
vomiting
weakness hallucinations
agitation
abdominal pain headache
allergic reaction
abnormal thinking high/low blood pressure
appetite loss
accidental injury hives
apprehension
memory loss insomnia

Q) What are the symptoms of Overdose?

A)

  • cold clammy skin
  • flaccid muscles
  • fluid in the lungs
  • lowered blood pressure
  • "pinpoint" or dilated pupils
  • sleepiness
  • stupor
  • coma
  • slowed breathing
  • slow pulse rate

Q) What is Morphine addiction?

A) Morphine is highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.

Addictive drugs activate the brain’s reward systems. The promise of reward is very intense, causing the individual to crave the drug and to focus his or her activities around taking the drug. The ability of addictive drugs to strongly activate brain reward mechanisms and their ability to chemically alter the normal functioning of these systems can produce an addiction. Drugs also reduce a person’s level of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.

Q) What are possible drug interactions when using Morphine?

A)

  • Alcohol
  • Certain analgesics such as Talwin, Nubain, Stadol, and Buprenex
  • Drugs that control vomiting, such as Compazine and Tigan
  • Drugs classified as MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate
  • Major tranquilizers such as Thorazine and Haldol
  • Muscle relaxants such as Flexeril and Valium
  • Sedatives such as Dalmane and Halcion
  • Tranquilizers such as Librium and Xanax
  • Water pills such as Diuril and Lasix